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The Evaluation and Comparative Study with a New Clustered Based Machine Learning Algorithm

Alauddin Alomary1 and Mohammad Jamil2

1Department of Computer Engineering, University of Bahrain, Bahrain

2Department of Math and Computer, Qatar University, Qatar


Abstract: In this paper, a clustering based machine learning algorithm called Clustering Algorithm System (CAS) is introduced. The CAS algorithm is tested to evaluate its performance and find fruitful results. We have been presented some heuristics to facilitate machine-learning authors to boost up their research works. The InfoBase of the Ministry of Civil Services is used to analyze the CAS algorithm. The CAS algorithm was compared with other machine learning algorithms like UNIMEM, COBWEB, and CLASSIT and was found to have some strong points over them. The proposed algorithm combined advantages of two different approaches to machine learning. The first approach is learning from examples, CAS supports single and multiple inheritance and exceptions. CAS also avoids probability assumptions which are well understood in concept formation. The second approach is learning by observation. CAS applies a set of operators that have proven to be effective in conceptual clustering. We have shown how CAS builds and searches through a clusters hierarchy to incorporate or characterize an object.

Keywords: Clustering algorithm, unsupervised learning, evidential reasoning, incremental learning, multiple inheritances, overlapping concept.

Received December 26, 2004; accepted May 24, 2005

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Adaptive Fuzzy Route Lifetime for Wireless Ad-hoc Networks


Essam Natsheh, Sabira Khatun, and Adznan B. Jantan

 Department of Computer and Communication Systems, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia


Abstract: Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol has been and continues to be a very active and fruitful research protocol since its introduction in the wireless ad-hoc networks. AODV uses a static value for its route lifetime parameter called Active Route Timeout (ART) which states the time that the route can stay active in the routing table. Route lifetime may be more accurately determined dynamically via measurement, instead of using a statically configured value. To accomplish this, the fuzzy logic system was used to obtain adaptive values for ART depending on the situation of the transmitter and intermediate nodes. Analysis shows that the proposed design method is quite efficient and superior to the conventional design method with respect to data packet delivery ratio, routing overhead and average end-to-end delay.  

Keywords: Ad-hoc networks, AODV, adaptive route timeout, fuzzy route lifetime.

Received February 5, 2005; accepted June 24, 2005

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Multi-Agent-Based Adaptive AV Interface

Tarek El-Basuny1 and Makoto Amamiya2

1Dept. of Information and Computer Science, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, SA

2 Department of Intelligent Systems, Kyushu University, Japan


Abstract: In order to build adaptive interfaces, we need adaptive interaction and dialogue handling methods. We have  presented an advanced model for interaction and dialogue management to support adaptive natural language Audio Visual (AV) interface. Our multi-agent-based Natural Language (NL) interface is a software application environment that breaks up NL interpretation into a community of collaborating, learning agents. It allows users to control AV appliances in NL, rather than using remote control devices. It learns and remembers the way a user does things, customizes its performance to match the user’s behavior. This paper shows at first the basic feature of AV agent system, and then reports the implementation and experimentation for Japanese version, which connect multi-agent-based NL interface with actual appliances and Sound Recognition Engine (SRE). By the experiment, our system works well; it provides an impressive degree of accuracy, measured as the percentage of requests that translate into the operation intended by the user. But we consider that the miss recognition of SRE should be absorbed more by the multi-agent system to make this system easier and comfortable to the users. Therefore, we propose an absorption theory by learning the habits of the SRE and the users, and then absorb the recognition errors of SRE after a time of training.

Keywords: Agent-oriented-programming, NL interface, learning, adaptation.

Received March 8, 2005; accepted May 14, 2005

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Modified Cryptanalysis of RC5

Mowafak Hasan and Hasan Al-Shalabi

College of Computer Engineering and Information Technology, Al Hussein Bin Talal University, Jordan

Abstract: The RC5 encryption algorithm was designed by Roland Rivest in 1994. Since its publication, RC5 has attracted the attention of many researchers in the cryptographic community in efforts to accurately assess the security offered.  The best previously known attack requires 254 chosen plaintexts in order to derive the full set of 25 subkeys for the 12 round RC5 with 32 bit words.  In this paper, we modified these results due to a differential approach. The attack requires 234 chosen plaintexts. We show that the 64 bit word version of RC5 is also weaker than it was expected.

Keywords: RC5, cryptographic, differential cryptanalysis.

Received March 31, 2005; accepted May 30, 2005

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Mining the Classification Rules for Egyptian Rice Diseases


Mohammed El-Telbany1, Mahmoud Warda2, and Mahmoud El-Borahy3

1Computers and System Department, Electronics Research Institute, Egypt

2National Research Center, Egypt

3Mathematical Department, Alexandria University, Egypt


Abstract: Applications of learning algorithms in knowledge discovery are promising and relevant area of research. It is offering new possibilities and benefits in real-world applications, helping us understand better mechanisms of our own methods of knowledge acquisition. Decision trees is one of learning algorithms which posses certain advantages that make it suitable for discovering the classification rule for data mining applications. This paper, intended to discover classification rules for the Egyptian rice diseases using the C4.5 decision trees algorithm. Experiments presenting a preliminary result to demonstrate the capability of C4.5 mine accurate classification rules suitable for diagnosis the disease.

Keywords: Data mining, classification, decision trees, neural networks, expert systems.

Received April 5, 2005; accepted June 26, 2005

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Regression Test Selection for Trusted Database Applications

Ramzi A. Haraty and Wissam Chehab

Division of Computer Science and Mathematics, Lebanese American University, Lebanon


Abstract: Regression testing is any type of software testing, which seeks to uncover regression bugs. Regression bugs occur as a consequence of program changes. Regression testing must be conducted to confirm that recent program changes have not harmfully affected existing features and new tests must be created to test new features. Testers might rerun all test cases generated at earlier stages to ensure that the program behaves as expected. However, as a program evolves the regression test set grows larger, old tests are rarely discarded, and the expense of regression testing grows. Repeating all previous test cases in regression testing after each major or minor software revision or patch is often impossible due to time pressure and budget constraints. This paper presents algorithms for regression testing for trusted database applications. Our proposed algorithms automate an important portion of the regression testing process, and they operate more efficiently than most other regression test selection algorithms. The algorithms are more general than most other techniques. They handle regression test selection for single procedures and for groups of interacting procedures. They also handle all language constructs and all types of program modifications for procedural languages.

Keywords: Regression testing, trusted applications.

Received April 8, 2005; accepted July 26, 2005

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Real-Time Game Design of Pac-Man Using Fuzzy Logic

Adnan Shaout, Brady King, and Luke Reisner

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Michigan, USA


Abstract: This paper presents the design and implementation of a real-time fuzzy-based artificial intelligence system for an interactive game. The chosen game is a remake of Pac-Man in which the opponents are BDI-style intelligent agents. The components of the system and the methods used in fuzzifying the game’s rules and variables are discussed. In addition, comparisons are drawn between the proposed fuzzy solution and other crisp and fuzzy approaches.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, artificial intelligence, intelligent agents, real-time, interactive, game.

Received April 14, 2005; accepted July 12, 2005

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Requirements for Client Puzzles to Defeat the Denial of Service and the Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

Vicky Laurens1, Abdulmotaleb El Saddik1, and Amiya Nayak2

1Multimedia Communications Research Laboratory University of Ottawa, Canada

2School of Information Technology & Engineering University of Ottawa, Canada


Abstract: Client puzzle protocols represent a promising technique for defeating resource depletion Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. Practical implementations of client puzzle protocols not only reported positive results in achieving such a challenging goal (preventing DoS attacks), but also these implementations overcame, up to a certain degree, one of the first disadvantages of client puzzle protocols: Their interoperability with current Internet communication protocols. However, the question on whether client puzzle protocols can thwart the Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks is still under investigation. Due to the increasing number of DDoS attacks, their prevention has become very important. Based on the puzzle generation and verification processes, and focusing mainly on forestalling DDoS attacks, this paper classifies and analyzes current proposals of client puzzle protocols. The paper not only reveals and analyzes their limitations with regards to the prevention of DDoS attacks, but also outlines a general approach for addressing the identified limitations. We propose a solution based on the general principle that under attack legitimate clients should be willing to experience some degradation in their performance in order to obtain the requested service. Our proposal is based on including a puzzle-solution request  in different states of a given connection such that the computational load for solving the puzzles will be noted but the clients’ operations will not be totally interrupted.

Keywords: Security attacks, distributed denial of service.

Received May 12, 2005; accepted August 3, 2005

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On DRSA Public Key Cryptosystem

Sahadeo Padhye

School of Studies in Mathematics, Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University, India


Abstract: The standard RSA cryptosystem is not semantically secure. Pointcheviel proposed a variant of RSA cryptosystem with the property of semantic security by introducing a new problem known as DRSA problem. He called it DRSA scheme. In this paper, we underlined a shortcoming of that scheme and proposed an alternative DRSA public key cryptosystem.

Keywords: Public key cryptosystem, RSA, DRSA, semantically secure.

Received May 26, 2005; accepted August 1, 2005

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A Knowledge-Based Decision Support System for Scraper Selection and Cost Estimation

Khalid Eldrandaly1 and Neil Eldin2

1College of Computers, Zagazig University, Egypt

2Construction Technology Department, Purdue School of Engineering and Technology (IUPUI), USA


Abstract: Scrapers are advantageous earthmoving construction equipments as they are independently capable of excavating, hauling, and placing soil. Determining the suitable and the most economical selection of the size, model, and number of scrapers and pushers is a complex process that depends on multiple factors such as the haul-road conditions, equipment performance, operation’s travel time, etc. Equipment selection is the first and the most important decision made by a contracting firm. The right choice of equipment determines competitiveness as well as profitability. Therefore, this paper presents a prototype knowledge-based decision support system for scraper selection and cost estimation. The system is developed through employing Visual Rule Studio® (an object oriented COM-compliant expert system development environment for windows) as an ActiveX Designer under Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 environment since it combines the advantages of both production rules and object-oriented programming technology. Also, using Component Object Model (COM) technology in designing and integrating the different components of the prototype system will assure software interoperability between these components. The architecture, the development and the implementation of the prototype system are discussed in details. A typical example is also presented to demonstrate the application of the prototype system.

Keywords: Scrapers selection, expert systems, decision support systems, COM.

Received June 6, 2005; accepted August 25, 2005

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Fast 160-Bits GF (P) Elliptic Curve Crypto Hardware of High-Radix Scalable Multipliers

Adnan Abdul-Aziz Gutub

Computer Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, SA


Abstract: In this paper, a fast hardware architecture for elliptic curve cryptography computation in Galois Field, GF (p), is proposed. The architecture is implemented for 160-bits, as its data size to handle. The design adopts projective coordinates to eliminate most of the required GF (p) inversion calculations replacing them with several multiplication operations. The hardware is intended to be scalable, which allows the hardware to compute long precision numbers in a repetitive way. The design involves four parallel scalable multipliers to gain the best speed. This scalable design was implemented in different versions depending on the area and speed. All scalable implementations were compared with an available FPGA design. The proposed scalable hardware showed interesting results in both area and speed. It also showed some area-time flexibility to accommodate the variation needed by different crypto applications.

Keywords: Modulo multipliers, elliptic curve cryptography, scalable hardware designs.

Received September 24, 2005; accepted August 1, 2005

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