October 2010, No. 4
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2009 Index
The International Arab Journal for Information Technology Vol. 6

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Measurement of V2oIP over Wide Area
Network between Countries Using
Soft Phone and USB Phone

Mohd Ismail
Department of MIIT, University of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Abstract: In this research, we propose an architectural solution to integrate the video voice over IP services in campus environment ‎network and tested over LAN and WAN. Voice over IP technology has become a discussion issue for this time being. Today, ‎the deployment of this technology on an organization truly can give a great financial benefit over traditional telephony. ‎Therefore, this study is to analyze the V2oIP and investigate the performance areas evolved with the quality of service ‎delivered by video phone system over LAN and WAN. This study focuses on quality of voice and video, packet loss, delay time ‎and jitter through the USB video phone and soft phone over LAN and WAN. In this study, network management system is used ‎to monitor and capture the performance of V2oIP between LAN and WAN.  In addition, the most apparent of implementing soft ‎phone and USB video phone platform is to define the best achievement between LAN and WAN that can be used in operational ‎environment.  Based on the finding result, it shows that users may experience V2oIP quality service degradations due to delays ‎and losses in WAN compare to LAN.  ‎

Keywords: V2oIP, jitter, delay, packet loss, CPU, LAN, WAN, and NMS

Received May 27, 2008; accepted September 1, 2008‎


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Evaluation of Text Clustering
Methods Using WordNet

Abdelmalek Amine1,2, Zakaria Elberrichi1, and Michel Simonet3‎
‎1EEDIS Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, UDL University, Algeria‎
‎2Department of Computer Science, UTMS University, Algeria‎
‎3IN3S, Joseph Fourier University, France

Abstract: The increasing number of digitized texts presently available notably on the Web has developed an acute need in text mining ‎techniques. Clustering systems are used more and more often in text mining, especially to analyze texts and to extract ‎knowledge they contain. With the availability of the vast amount of clustering algorithms and techniques, it becomes highly ‎confusing to a user to choose the algorithm that best suits its target dataset. Actually, it is very hard to define which algorithms ‎work the best, since results depend considerably on the application and on the kinds of data at hand. In this paper, we propose, ‎study and compare three text clustering methods: an ascending hierarchical clustering method, a SOM-based clustering ‎method and an ant-based clustering method, all of these based on the synsets of WordNet as terms for the representation of ‎textual documents. The effects of these methods are examined in several experiments using 3 similarity measurements: the ‎cosine distance, the Euclidean distance and the manhattan distance. The reuters-21578 corpus is used for evaluation. The ‎evaluation was done, by using the F-measure. The results obtained show that the SOM-based clustering method using the ‎cosine distance provides the best results.‎

Keywords: Text clustering, similarity, WordNet, reuter-21578, and F-measure.‎

Received February 24, 2009; accepted August 3, 2009‎

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A Modified High Capacity Image Steganography Technique Based on Wavelet Transform

Ali Al-Ataby1 and Fawzi Al-Naima2‎
‎1Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, UK
‎2Department of Computer Engineering, Nahrain University, Iraq

Abstract: Steganography is the art and science of concealing information in unremarkable cover media so as not to arouse an ‎eavesdropper’s suspicion. It is an application under information security field. Being classified under information security, ‎steganography will be characterized by having set of measures that rely on strengths and counter measures (attacks) that are ‎driven by weaknesses and vulnerabilities. Today, computer and network technologies provide easy-to-use communication ‎channels for steganography. The aim of this paper is to propose a modified high-capacity image steganography technique that ‎depends on wavelet transform with acceptable levels of imperceptibility and distortion in the cover image and high level of ‎overall security.‎

Keywords: Steganography, security, wavelets, cryptography, and information hiding.‎

Received August 17, 2008; accepted August 3, 2009‎

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Attack and Construction of Simulator for Some of Cipher Systems Using Neuro-Identifier

Khaled Alallayah1, Mohamed Amin1, Waiel Abd El-Wahed2, and Alaa Alhamami3‎
‎1Department of Mathematical & Computer Science, Al Menoufia University, Egypt
‎2Department of Computer Science, Al Menoufia University, Egypt
‎3Faculty of Computing Studies, Amman Arab University for Graduate Studies, Jordan ‎

Abstract: The problem in cryptanalysis can be described as an unknown and the neural networks are ideal tools for black-box system ‎identification. In this paper, a mathematical black-box model is developed and system identification techniques are combined ‎with adaptive system techniques, to construct the Neuro-Identifier. The Neuro-Identifier is discussed as a black-box model to ‎attack the target cipher systems. In this paper a new addition in cryptography. Has been presented, and the methods of ‎classical and stream cryptosystems are discussed. The constructing of Neuro-Identifier mode is  to achieve two objectives: the ‎first one is to emulator construction Neuro-model for the target cipher system, while the second is to (cryptanalysis) determine ‎the key from given plaintext-ciphertext pair.‎

Keywords: Neuro-Identefier, classical cipher, stream cipher, black box, emulation, and cryptanalysis. ‎

Received May 27, 2008; accepted September 1, 2008‎

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Multilayer Neural Network-Burg Combination
for Acoustical Detection of Buried Objects

      Mujahid AL-Azzo1 and Lubna Badri2‎
‎1Faculty of Engineering Technology, Zarqa Private University, Jordan
‎2Faculty of Engineering, Philadelphia University, Jordan

Abstract: A Burg technique is employed to model the long wavelength localization and imaging problem. A Burg method is used as a ‎high resolution and stable technique. The idea of in-line holography is used to increase the ratio of the signal to noise due to ‎the effect of concealing media that decreases the value of the received signal. The performance is enhanced by using ‎multilayer neural network for noise reduction. The aim of using multilayer neural network is to extract the essential ‎knowledge from a noisy training data. Theoretical and experimental results have showed that preprocessing the noisy data ‎with multilayer neural network will decrease the effect of noise as much as possible. Applying the enhanced data to spectral ‎estimation methods has improved the performance of the model. A comparison is made for the two cases: with and without ‎application of neural network for different values of signal to noise ratio. Also, the performance is investigated for different ‎numbers of samples.‎

Keywords: Multilayer neural networks, holographic imaging, burg method, and modelling.‎

Received November 13, 2008; accepted August 3, 2009‎
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A Performance Comparison of MD5
 Authenticated Routing Traffic with

       Khalid Abu Al-Saud1, 2, Hatim Tahir2, Moutaz Saleh1, and Mohammed Saleh1‎
‎1Department of Computer Science and Engineering College of Engineering, Qatar University, Qatar
‎2Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Information Technology, Malaysia‎

Abstract: Routing is the process of forwarding data across an inter-network from a designated source to a final destination. Along the ‎way from source to destination, at least one intermediate node is considered. Due to the major role that routing protocols play ‎in computer network infrastructures, special cares have been given to routing protocols with built-in security constraints. In ‎this paper, we conduct performance evaluation comparisons on message digest 5 authenticated routing traffic with respect to ‎EIGRP, RIPv2 and OSPF protocols. A network model of four Cisco routers has been employed with an ON/OFF traffic model ‎used to describe text files transmissions over the network. Eventually, analysis tool has been developed and used to measure ‎the average delay time and average jitter. The collected results show that the average delay time and jitter in the secured ‎message digest 5 case can become significantly larger when compared to the non-secured case even in steady state conditions. ‎Among all, the secured OSPF protocol shows the highest performance even when the system is extremely overloaded.‎

Keywords: Performance, MD5, EIGRP, RIPv2, and OSPF.‎

Received November 3, 2008; accepted February 25, 2009‎
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Implementation of a Speech Coding
Strategy for Auditory Implants

Lamia Bouafif, Kais Ouni, and Noureddine Ellouze
Signal Processing Laboratory, Engineering Faculty of Tunis, Tunisia

Abstract: In this paper we present the conception and the implementation of a speech processing interface for cochlea prosthesis. This ‎module is based on a numerical speech processing algorithm which modelizes the infected ear and generates the stimulus ‎signals for the cilia cells (brain).  This interface uses a gammachirp filter bank constituted of 16 band pass filters based on IIR ‎filters. The central frequencies and ERB bands are computed with Glasberg and Moore models; however stimulus signals are ‎selected after a spectral energy analysis of each channel. The energy and the amplitude of the selected BFG filter bank outputs ‎are quantized and transmitted to the cochlea electrodes.  To validate our work, we tested it on vowels, consonants then on ‎several words pronounced by different speakers. The results demonstrated a degree of discrimination and interferences ‎between different sounds especially in multi speaker environment.‎

Keywords: Cochlea prosthesis, stimulus, gammatone filter, gammachirp, and speech coding.‎

Received February 8, 2009; accepted May 27, 2009‎

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JAM: Justifiable Allocation of Memory with Efficient Mounting and Fast Crash Recovery
 for NAND Flash Memory File Systems

Sanam-Shahla Rizvi and Tae-Sun Chung ‎
School of Information and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Korea   ‎

Abstract: Flash memory is small size, lightweight, shock-resistant, non-volatile, and consumes little power. Flash memory therefore ‎shows promise for use in storage devices for consumer electronics, mobile computers and embedded systems. Even though, ‎flash memory has many attractive features but issues on performance and data integrity are becoming more critical to address ‎by researchers. First, the rapidly increasing capacity of flash memory imposes long mount time delay for normal start-up and ‎in case of crash recovery. Second, large main memory requirement for keeping file system mapping data structure becoming ‎significant issue with growth in size of flash memory. In this paper, we discuss related problems in detail, and propose novel ‎mechanism for high performance and system reliability by effective metadata management, efficient mounting, fast crash ‎recovery, and reduced RAM footprints for log structured NAND flash memory based file systems, called justifiable allocation ‎of memory. The trace driven simulation results show the significantly improved performance for mounting and crash recovery ‎time with reduced main memory space required by our proposed justifiable allocation of memory scheme compared to well-‎known JFFS2 and YAFFS2 flash file systems.  ‎

Keywords: Consumer electronics, embedded systems, memory management, system crash recovery, system reliability, and system ‎performance. ‎

Received December 18, 2008; accepted July 26, 2009‎

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Brightness Preserving Image Contrast Enhancement using Weighted Mixture of Global and Local Transformation Functions

Hasanul Kabir1, Abdullah Al-Wadud2, and Oksam Chae1 ‎
‎1Department of Computer Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Korea
‎2Industrial and Management Engineering Division, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Korea

Abstract: Transformation functions utilizing the global information content of an input image have been long serving contrast ‎enhancement by stretching the dynamic range of intensity levels. Other transformation functions focus on local information ‎content to correct image details, such as edges and texture. In this paper, an effective method for image contrast enhancement ‎is presented with a mapping function, which is a mixture of global and local transformation functions that improve both the ‎brightness and fine details of the input image. The final mapping function incorporates a local intensity-pair distribution ‎generated expansion function from each image block to control the enhancement of image details that the global ‎transformation function alone may fail to improve. Contribution from the global transformation function preserves the overall ‎image brightness and contrast stretching. Experiments show that the proposed method competes well with the existing ‎enhancement methods, both subjectively and quantitatively. ‎

Keywords: Contrast enhancement, global transformation function, local transformation function, and intensity pair.‎

Received March 29, 2009; accepted August 4, 2009‎

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Hybrid Computing Algorithm in
Representing Solid Model

Muhammad Matondang and Habibollah Haron
Department of Modeling and Industrial Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

Abstract: This paper presents an algorithm, which is a hybrid-computing algorithm in representing solid model. The proposed algorithm ‎contains two steps namely reconstruction and representation. In the reconstruction step, neural network with back propagation ‎has been applied to derive the depth values of solid model that was represented by the given two-Dimensional (2D) line ‎drawing. And then in the representation step, once the depth value was derived, the mathematical modeling was used to ‎generate the mathematical models to represent the reconstructed solid model. The algorithm has been tested on a cube. ‎Totally, there are eighty-three cubes has been used on the development of neural network model and six mathematical ‎equations yielded to represent each one cube. The proposed algorithm successfully takes the advantages of neural network and ‎mathematical modeling in representing solid model. Comparison analysis conducted between the algorithm and skewed ‎symmetry model shows that the algorithm has more advantages in term of the ease of the uses and in simplifying the use of ‎mathematical modeling in representing solid model.‎

Keywords: Solid model, reconstruction, representation, neural network, mathematical modeling, and hybrid computing.‎

Received June 19, 2008; accepted February 25, 2009‎


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A Novel Radon-Wavelet Based OFDM
System Design and Performance Under
Different Channel Conditions

     Abbas Kattoush
EE Engineering Department, Tafila Technical University, Jordan

Abstract: Finite Radon Transform mapper has the ability to increase orthogonality of sub-carriers, it is non sensitive to channel ‎parameters variations, and has a small constellation energy compared with conventional Fast Fourier Transform based ‎orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. It is also able to work as a good interleaver which significantly reduces the bit ‎error rate. Due to its good orthogonality, discrete wavelet transform is used for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ‎systems which reduces inter symbol interference and inter carrier interference. This eliminates the need for cyclic prefix and ‎increases the spectral efficiency of the design. In this paper both Finite Radon Transform and Discrete Wavelet Transform are ‎implemented in a new design for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. The new structure was tested and compared with ‎conventional Fast Fourier Transform -based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, Radon-based orthogonal frequency ‎division multiplexing, and discrete wavelet transform -based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for additive white ‎Gaussian noise channel, flat fading channel, and multi-path selective fading channel. Simulation tests were generated for ‎different channels parameters values. The obtained results showed that proposed system has increased spectral efficiency, ‎reduced inter symbol interference and inter carrier interference, and improved bit error rate performance compared with ‎other systems.‎


Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform, Finite Radon Transform, radon based OFDM, DWT based OFDM, and OFDM.‎

Received April 8, 2009; accepted August 4, 2009‎

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Improving Web Services Security Models

Sawsan Abu-Taleb and Hossam Mustafa
Al-Balqa' Applied University, Jordan

Abstract: Web services are considered one of the main technologies which emerged in recent years, they provide an application ‎integration technology that allows business applications to communicate and cooperate over the Internet. Web services ‎encouraged existent architectures to adopt as one of the most important technologies; Portals, providing content aggregation ‎from various web services sources for providing useful information to users. The distributed sources of web services ‎aggregated into users' pages provide a component model architecture, which allows the plugging of components in ‎infrastructure, which are referred to as portlets. This paper defines effective models for securing portlet contents by defining ‎an access control list for each portlet, which will looks into the access control of web services, and authentication of web ‎services consumers. In addition, this paper introduces a design for trusted authority that will be responsible for fair contract ‎exchange between portlet producers and consumer; thus, defining a single sign-on model, which is responsible for ‎authenticating remote portlets requests.‎

Keywords: Web services, WSRP, single-sign-on, security, and e-contract.‎

Received July 23, 2008; accepted May 17, 2009‎

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Framework for Intrusion Detection in
IEEE 802.11 Wireless Mesh Networks

Shafiullah Khan1, 2, Kok-Keong Loo1, and Zia Ud Din3‎
‎1School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, UK
‎2Kohat University of Science and Technology, Pakistan
‎3Gomal University, Pakistan‎

Abstract: Intrusion detection system is one of the possible solutions to timely detect the intrusions and alarm for appropriate action. So far ‎many intrusion detection systems have been proposed for ad-hoc networks, however due to the different characteristics, such ‎intrusion detection systems cannot perform well in wireless mesh networks environment. In this paper, we propose a new ‎framework of intrusion detection systems exclusively for wireless mesh networks. This paper will serve as a baseline guide for ‎investigating intrusion detection systems for large scale multi-hop wireless broadband networks.  ‎

Keywords: Wireless mesh network, intrusion detection, and security.‎

Received May 12, 2009; accepted August 3, 2009‎

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