April 2011, No. 2
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A New Fault Injection Approach to Study
the Impact of Bitflips in the Configuration
of SRAM-Based FPGAs

   Haissam Ziade1, Rafic Ayoubi2, Raoul Velazco3, and Tarek Idriss2
1Faculty of Engineering I, Lebanese University, Lebanon
2Department of Computer Engineering, University of Balamand, Lebanon
3TIMA Laboratory, INPG, France


Abstract: A new method for injecting faults in the configuration bits of SRAM-based FPGAs is proposed. The main advantages over previous methods are its ability to simultaneously inject several faults or bit-flips in the FPGA by “pipelining” the fault injection process. The design to be tested is divided into modules. The first step in the fault injection technique would be inserting one fault in each of the modules and observing the potential misbehavior of these modules. In the second step the effects on the whole system of the misbehavior of the module are independently evaluated. Using this technique makes possible to inject several faults when reconfiguring the FPGA with the faulty bitstream, while other techniques were able to insert only one fault on each reconfiguration. Thus the speed in which faults are injected is significantly increased and the time needed to conduct the experiment is shortened. A simulation is described to validate the new fault injection process.

Keywords: FPGA, Fault injection techniques, SEU, and fault tolerance.


Received November 20, 2008; accepted May 17, 2009

 
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GUI Structural Metrics

     Izzat Alsmadi and Mohammed Al-Kabi
Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, Yarmouk University, Jordan


Abstract: User interfaces have special characteristics that differentiate them from the rest of the software code. Typical oftware metrics that indicate its complexity and quality may not be able to distinguish a complex GUI or a high quality one rom another that is not. This paper is about suggesting and introducing some GUI structural metrics that can be gathered ynamically using a test automation tool. Rather than measuring quality or usability, the goal of those developed metrics is to easure the GUI testability, or how much it is hard, or easy to test a particular user interface. We evaluate GUIs for several easons such as usability and testability. In usability, users evaluate a particular user interface for how much easy, convenient, and fast it is to deal with it. In our testability evaluation, we want to automate the process of measuring the complexity of the user interface from testing perspectives. Such metrics can be used as a tool to estimate required resources to test a particular application.

Keywords: Layout complexity, GUI metrics, and interface usability.


Received July 14, 2009; accepted August 3, 2009

 
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A Survey of High-Level Programming
Languages in Control Systems

   Fernando Valles-Barajas
Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Regiomontana, México


Abstract: This paper explains how advanced programming language concepts can be used to increase the readability and imaintainability of control process software. The programming language concepts presented in this paper are: function pointers, variable argument functions and three concepts related to object-oriented programming: polymorphism, relationship of composition between classes and class methods. The advantage of every one of these concepts is demonstrated by using control applications. The paper also demonstrates that intelligent control algorithms can be improved by using these concepts.C and C++ programming languages are used to implement the code of the control systems.

Keywords: Kalman filter, intelligent control, adaptive control systems, polymorphism, function pointers, and object-oriented programming.


Received March 6, 2009; accepted November 5, 2009

 
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An RFID-Based Validation System for Halal Food

   Mohd Nasir1, Azah Norman1, Shukor Fauzi2, and Masliyana Azmi1
1Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Malaysia
2Faculty of Information Technology and Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia


Abstract: In recent years, Muslims have depended on the Halal logo, displayed on food packaging, to indicate that the products are prepared according to Halal precepts. As laid out in the Quran, Halal designates that which is lawful and permitted. However, due to the rapid development of advanced technology and the stringent procedures legislated by the Department of Islamic Development in Malaysia, manufacturers may sometimes resort to fabricating a fake logo to attract Muslim consumers. This study is focused on validating Halal status for food products by using radio frequency identification technology to enhance existing methods in Malaysia. A preliminary survey was carried out to evaluate the industry’s readiness to implement radio frequency identification technology in Malaysia. A process model and prototype were developed to enhance existing systems. Through this new approach, the authentic Halal logo that is issued by JAKIM can easily be validated, because every stamp that will be embedded into food packages is identified with its own unique identification number. An radio frequency identification reader will be placed in retail venues for consumers to validate their food’s Halal status. User evaluation has been conducted to measure satisfaction in terms of usability, efficiency, security, affordability and profitability. Based on the evaluation, all respondents are satisfied with the performance of this new technology and fully support implementing this system globally, as the Malaysian government is now moving towards becoming the world’s Halal hub.

Keywords: Radio frequency identification, automatic identification, food industry, acceptance, and Malaysia.


Received June 10, 2009; accepted January 3, 2010

 
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Speech Segmentation in Synthesized Speech
Morphing Using Pitch Shifting

 Allam Mousa
Electrical Engineering Department, An Najah University, Palestine


Abstract: This paper discusses the speech morphing process showing some limitations of using the directly obtained LPC and excitation parameters of speech. The algorithm here depends on changing the pitch of the source to match that of the target based on analyzing the speech signals to its basic components. Different experiments for changing the female to female, male to male, male to female and female to male speech were performed. Interesting results were obtained while dealing with children's speech. Difficulties of obtaining the pitch period were overcome but the obtained results have some diversity in the quality of performance even though the pitch has been changed correctly. The method for obtaining LPC and excitation used could be improved which could provide better results for this application.

Keywords: Speech morphing, linear prediction, pitch detection, and speech synthesis.

                                       Received August 3, 2009; accepted November 5, 2009
 
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Build Electronic Arabic Lexicon

Nidhal El-Abbadi, Ahmed Khdhair, and Adel Al-Nasrawi
University of Kufa, Iraq


Abstract: There are many known Arabic lexicons organized on different ways, each of them has a different number of Arabic words according to its organization way. This paper has used mathematical relations to count a number of Arabic words, which proofs the number of Arabic words presented by Al Farahidy. The paper also presents new way to build an electronic Arabic lexicon by using a hash function that converts each word (as input) to correspond a unique integer number (as output), these integer numbers will be used as an index to a lexicon entry.

Keywords: Arabic lexicon, hash function, Al Farahidy, dictionary, and search engine.

Received October 6, 2008; accepted May 17, 2009

 
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Evaluation for Diaphragm’s Deflection for Touch
Mode MEMS Pressure Sensors

Yadollah Hezarjaribi1,2, Mohd Hamidon1, Roslina Sidek1, Keshmiri Hossein3, Raja Abdullah1,
and Alireza Bahadorimehr1
1University Putra Malaysia, Department of Electrical Engineering, Malaysia
2Golestan University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran
3Ferdowsi University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran


Abstract: In this paper, an analytical and simulation solution for touch mode Micro-electromechanical systems pressure sensor operating in harsh environment is proposed. The principle of the paper is to design, obtain analytical solution and compare the results with the simulation using finite elements analysis for a circular diaphragm deflection before and after touch point. By looking at MEMS devices, when the diaphragm starts touching the fixed electrode by applying loads, it will have a major effect on the overall performance of the device. Therefore, one should consider the effect of touch mode in the system to achieve good linearity, large operating pressure range and large overload protection at output. As of so far the effect of touch mode has not been evaluated efficiently in the literatures. The proposed touch mode MEMS capacitive pressure sensor demonstrated diaphragm with radius of 180 μ m , the gap depth of 0.5 μ m and the sensor exhibit a linear response with pressure from 0.05 Mpa to 2 Mpa.

Keywords: MEMS, Touch mode, capacitive pressure sensor; harsh environment, FEA, and circular diaphragm.

Received October 27, 2008; accepted May 17, 2009

 
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An Ontology-based Semantic Extraction
Approach for B2C eCommerce

Ali Ghobadi1 and Maseud Rahgozar2
1Database Research Group, University of Tehran, Iran
2Control and Intelligent Processing Center of Excellence, University of Tehran, Iran

Abstract: Although varieties of investigations have been done on human semantic interactions with Web resources, no advanced and considerable progresses have been achieved. It could be said that comparative shopping systems are the last generations of B2C eCommerce systems that connect to multiple online stores and collect the information requested by the user. In some cases, the information is extracted from the online store sites through keyword search and other means of textual analysis. These processes make use of assumptions about the proximity of certain pieces of information. These heuristic approaches are error-prone and are not always guaranteed to work. In this paper, we propose an ontology-based approach to extract the products’ information and the vendors’ price from their public Web sites’ pages. Although most vendors on the Web present their products’ information in HTML documents that are not semantic formats. However, our approach is based on understanding semantics of HTML documents and extracting the information automatically.

Keywords: Semantic correspondence, ontology, and schema.

Received November 28, 2008; accepted May 17, 2009

  

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Multilayer Model for Arabic Text Compression

Arafat Awajan
Department of Computer Science, Princess Sumaya University for Technology, Jordan


Abstract: This article describes a multilayer model-based approach for text compression. It uses linguistic information to develop a multilayer decomposition model of the text in order to achieve better compression. This new approach is illustrated for the case of the Arabic language, where the majority of words are generated according to the Semitic root-and-pattern scheme. Text is split into three linguistically homogeneous layers representing the three categories of words: derivative, nonderivative and functional words. A fourth layer, called the Mask, is introduced to aid with the reconstruction of the original text from the three layers in the decoding side. Suitable compression techniques are then applied to the different layers in order to maximize the compression ratio. The proposed method has been evaluated in terms of the rate of compression it provides and its time efficiency. Results are shown along with real texts to illustrate the performance of the new approach. The novelties of the compression technique presented in this article are that (1) the morphological structure of words may be used to support better compression and to improve the performances of traditional compression techniques; (2) search for words can be done on the compressed text directly through the appropriate one of its layers; and (3) applications such as text mining
and document classification can be performed directly on the compressed texts.

Keywords: Text compression, morphological analysis, multilayer based compression, word lexical form, word based compression, and Arabic language.

Received March 12, 2009; accepted November 5, 2009

 
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Blocked-Based Sparse Matrix-Vector
Multiplication on Distributed
Memory Parallel Computers

Rukhsana Shahnaz and Anila Usman
Department of Computer and Information Science, Pakistan Inst. of Eng. and Applied Sciences, Pakistan

Abstract: The present paper discusses the implementations of sparse matrix-vector products, which are crucial for high erformance solutions of large-scale linear equations, on a PC-Cluster. Three storage formats for sparse matrices compressed row storage, block compressed row storage and sparse block compressed row storage are evaluated. Although using BCRS format reduces the execution time but the improvement may be limited because of the extra work from filled-in zeros. We show that the use of SBCRS not only improves the performance significantly but reduces matrix storage also.

Keywords: Matrix-vector product, compressed storage formats, sparse matrix data structures, locality of matrix, parallel matrix computation, and block-based compressed storage.

Received September 24, 2008; accepted May 17, 2009

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Hi-Tech Authentication for Palette Images Using
Digital Signature and Data Hiding

Arockia Jansirani, Rengansivagurunathan Rajesh, Ramasamy Balasubramanian, and Perumal Eswaran
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, India


Abstract: A scheme that integrates digital signature and data hiding to provide hi–tech authentication for palette images is roposed in this paper. The scheme extracts digital signature from the original palette image and embeds it back into the same alette image, avoiding additional signature file. Digital signature generation is employed using elliptic curve based public key cryptosystem. The performance of elliptic curve based public key cryptosystems is mainly appointed by the efficiency of the nderlying finite field arithmetic. Instead of directly sending an original palette image to recipients, only the embedded copy is ent associated with signed digital signature. Experimental results show that security is achieved without sacrificing the image uality.

Keywords: Digital signature, elliptic curve cryptography, karatsuba multiplication, data hiding, palette image, and color apping function.

Received June 17, 2008; accepted May 17, 2009

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Data Hiding Based on Contrast Mapping
Using DNA Medium

Hayam Mousa, Kamel Moustafa, Waiel Abdel-Wahed, and Mohiy Hadhoud
Faculty of Computers and Information, Menoufia University, Egypt

Abstract: Recently, biological techniques become more and more popular, as they are applied to many kinds of applications, authentication protocols, biochemistry, and cryptography. One of the most interesting biology techniques is deoxyribo nucleic acid and using it in such domains. Hiding secret data in deoxyribo nucleic acid becomes an important and interesting research topic. Some researchers hide the secret data in transcribed deoxyribo nucleic acid, translated ribo nucleic acid regions, or active coding segments where it doesn't mention to modify the original sequence, but others hide data in non-transcribed deoxyribo nucleic acid, non-translated ribo nucleic acid regions, or active coding segments. Unfortunately, these schemes either alter the functionalities or modify the original deoxyribo nucleic acid sequences. As a result, how to embed the secret data into the deoxyribo nucleic acid sequence without altering the functionalities and to have the original deoxyribo nucleic acid sequence be able to be retrieved is worthy of investigating. This paper applies reversible information hiding scheme on deoxyribo nucleic acid sequence by using the reversible contrast mapping technique. The reversible property makes the secret data hidden in anywhere in deoxyribo nucleic acid without altering the functionalities because the original deoxyribo nucleic acid sequence can be recovered exactly in our scheme.

Keywords: Security, steganography, DNA, and RCM.

Received November 17, 2008; accepted May 17, 2009

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Improving the Accuracy of English-Arabic
Statistical Sentence Alignment

Mohammad Salameh1, Rached Zantout2, and Nashat Mansour1
1Department of Computer Science and Mathematics, Lebanese American University, Lebanon
2College of Computer and Information Sciences, Prince Sultan University, Saudi Arabia
 
Abstract: Multilingual natural language processing systems are increasingly relying on parallel corpus to ameliorate their output. Parallel corpora constitute the basic block for training a statistical natural language processing system and creating translation and language models. Several systems have been devised that automatically align words of a pair of sentences, teach in a language. Such systems have been used successfully with European languages. In this paper, one such system is used to align sentences in an English-Arabic corpus. The system works poorly given raw unaligned sentence English-Arabic sentence pairs. This prompted the development of a preprocessing step to be applied to the Arabic sentences. The same corpus was then preprocessed and a significant improvement is reported when alignment is attempted using the preprocessed unaligned sentences.

Keywords: Word alignment, sentence alignment, parallel corpora, and statistical natural language processing.

Received January 15, 2009; accepted August 3, 2009

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Extended Average Magnitude Difference
Function Based Pitch Detection

Ghulam Muhammad
Department of Computer Engineering, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

Abstract: This paper presents a new extended average magnitude difference function for noise robust pitch detection. Average magnitude difference function based algorithms are suitable for real time operations, but suffer from incorrect pitch detection in noisy conditions. The proposed new extended average magnitude difference function involves in sufficient number of averaging for all lag values compared to the original average magnitude difference function, and thereby eliminates the falling tendency of the average magnitude difference function without emphasizing pitch harmonics at higher lags, which is a severe limitation of other existing improvements of the average magnitude difference function. A noise robust post processing that explores the contribution of each frequency channel is also presented. Experimental results on Keele pitch database in different noise level, both with white and color noise, shows the superiority of the proposed extended average magnitude difference function based pitch detection method over other methods based on average magnitude difference function.

Keywords: Pitch detection, AMDF, EAMDF, and noise robust.

Received May 13, 2009; accepted January 3, 2010

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An End-to-End Support for Short-Lived TCP
Flows in Heterogeneous Wired-cum-Wireless
Networks: An Analytical Study

Haya Sammaneh1, Jamal Al-Karaki2, and Sameer Bataineh1
1Computer Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan
2Computer Engineering Department, The Hashemite University, Jordan

Abstract: Transmission control protocol has been adapted to various types of wireless networks (e.g., IEEE 802.11 WLAN, 3G cellular and ad hoc networks). However, wireless transmission control protocol flows are much shorter than wired flows due to the time varying characteristics of wireless networks. Hence, transmission control protocol performance in these networks is determined by the start up effects such as connection establishment. Several analytical models were proposed to describe the steady-state behaviour of short-lived transmission control protocol flows in wired networks, while few similar studies targeted wireless networks. Moreover, almost all of the previous models did not investigate the effect of heterogeneity (e.g., link speed and segment loss probability) of wireless networks on the end-to-end performance of transmission control protocol flows. In this paper, a recursive and analytical model is developed and used to determine the performance of short- lived transmission control protocol flows in heterogeneous wired-cum-wireless networks in terms of average completion time. Two different schemes are proposed to solve the wireless loss problems by the end hosts, namely, end-to-end scheme and connection division scheme. The proposed analytical model has been validated by means of simulations using NS-2 simulator. Performance results show that the proposed model is in close analogy with values obtained from the analytical model. As such, the proposed model can be used to accurately tune many parameters that affect the behaviour of transmission control protocol in wired-cum-wireless networks.

Keywords: Software engineering education, and reflective learning and teaching.

Received June 29, 2009; accepted November 5, 2009

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