October 2011, No.4
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2011 Index
The International Arab Journal for Information Technology Vol. 8

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Detection of Traffic Signal By Adaptive Approach and Shape Constraints

Vanniappan Balamurugan1 and Senthamarai Kannan2
1Einstein College of Engineering, Tirunelveli, India
2Department of Statistics, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, India
Abstract: Thresholding plays a vital role in image segmentation. A wrong selection of threshold may lead to improper segmentation. Adaptive approach will be good enough for the selection of threshold in many occasions. This paper proposes an iterative approach for segmentation of traffic signal based on the prior knowledge about the size of the traffic signals. Region of Interest is found based on a tentative threshold and the threshold is varied according to the previously computed dimension of the identified object. Initially the input colour image is smoothed by applying morphological opening operation. The path information of the contour is used to find the coordinates of the clipping window. The image statistics of the ROI, viz. geometric area, pixel population and perimeter are used to extract the traffic signals from the input image. Here, the input colour image is divided into three channels and the threshold is applied to the red channel to extract the red as well as amber signal and green channel is processed to extract the green signal. The method is tested with 50 images and found successful.

Keywords: ROI, adaptive threshold, morphological opening, image statistics, and contour.

  Received June 6, 2008; accepted August 3, 2009

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Morpho-Syntactic Tagging System Based on  the Patterns Words for Arabic Texts

Abdelhamid El-Jihad1, Abdellah Yousfi2, and Aouragh Si-Lhoussain 3
1Institute for Studies and Research on arabization, Rabat, Morocco
2University Mohamad V Suissi, Rabat, Morocco
3University Mohamad I-Oujda, Morocco
Abstract: Text tagging is a very important tool for various applications in natural language processing, namely the morphological and syntactic analysis of texts, indexation and information retrieval, "vocalization" of Arabic texts, and probabilistic language model (n-class model). However, these systems based on the lexemes of limited size, are unable to treat unknown words consequently. To overcome this problem, we developed in this paper, a new system based on the patterns of unknown words and the hidden Markov model. The experiments are carried out in the set of labeled texts, the set of 3800 patterns, and the 52 tags of morpho-syntactic nature, to estimate the parameters of the new model HMM.

Keywords: Hidden markov model, morpho-syntactic tagging, Arabic text, and pattern.

  Received September 22, 2008; accepted May 17, 2009


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Design and Implementation Biometric Access Control System Using Fingerprint for Restricted Area Based on Gabor Filter

Ashraf El-Sisi
Computer Science Department, Faculty of Computers and Information, Menofyia University, Egypt
Abstract: Biometric recognition is the use of individual biometric characteristics, such as fingerprint, face, and signature for automatically computerized recognition systems. Fingerprints are the most widely used form of biometric recognition system successfully. However, fingerprint images are rarely of perfect quality. They may be degraded and corrupted due to variations in skin and impression conditions. Thus, image enhancement techniques are employed prior to minutiae extraction to obtain a more reliable estimation of minutiae locations. Minutiae extraction yielded many minutiae resulting from fingerprint irregularities. The aim of this work is the development of a biometric access control system for restricted areas based on individual finger print and Gabor filter for enhancement process. The development system architecture, demonstrating the components, enhancement, minutiae extraction and matching techniques are presented. A software application is written in Matlab and C# to implement algorithms for enhancement, minutiae extraction and matching processing. The resulting minutiae information will be used as a method of identifying matching fingerprints. Also it will be used to register this fingerprint in system database. Finally, verification system, and identification system are implemented. Registration system has facilities namely; automatic registration, manual registration and update for the database to help the administrator to update required information. Based on that processing, an integrated secure system for biometric access control is developed for restricted area with acceptable security level.

Keywords: Biometric, fingerprint, enhancement, gabor filter, minutiae extraction, verification, and identification system.

  Received November 6, 2008; accepted May 17, 2009


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Malay Isolated Speech Recognition Using Neural Network: A Work in Finding Number of Hidden Nodes and Learning Parameters

Md Salam1, Dzulkifli Mohamad1, and Sheikh Salleh2
1Faculty of Computer Science and Information System, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
2Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Abstract: This paper explains works in speech recognition using neural network. The main objective of the experiment is to choose suitable number of nodes in hidden layer and learning parameters for malay iIsolated digit speech problem through trial and error method. The network used in the experiment is feed forward multilayer perceptron trained with back propagation scheme. Speech data for the study are analyzed using linear predictive coding and log area ratio to represent speech signal for every 20ms through a fixed overlapped windows. The neural network learning operation are greatly influenced by the parameters ie. momentum, learning rate and number of hidden nodes chosen. The result shows that choosing unsuitable parameters lead to unlearned network while some good parameters set from previous work perform badly in this application. Best recognition rate achieved was 95% using network topology of input nodes, hidden nodes and output nodes of size 320:45:4 respectively while the best momentum rate and learning rate in the experiment were 0.5 and 0.75.

Keywords: Speech recognition, neural network, learning parameters, and trial and error method.

  Received January 12, 2009; accepted August 3, 2009


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Intelligent e-Learning Framework for Practicing Educational Testing Services

Aiman Turani and Faiz Al-Shrouf
Faculty of Information Technology, Applied Science University, Jordan
Abstract: This paper presents conceptual framework architecture of an e-Learning system that could be used to prepare students for an educational testing service like exam.  The preparation process consists of two main activities that will be conducted in a distant learning environment: completing interactive learning activities based on subject materials and conducting a set online sample tests.  The architecture employs intelligent software agents to facilitate the personalization of learning objects to be presented to each student.   The system will be deployed using the web services platform, allowing access through personal computers, mobile devices and PDAs.  The main objective of the system is to provide learners with more flexibility and to reduce their preparation time for the ETS exam by allowing them to navigate through materials and exam based on their academic profile from various access points.  The architecture will be fully implemented by the Applied Science University in Jordan to be used by their graduating students in their preparation for setting the educational testing services exam. It will replace the current traditional way where students need to set in certain dates to conduct educational testing services tutorial sessions and paper-based exams.

Keywords: Intelligent e-learning, web service e-learning and mobile e-learning.

  Received February 12, 2009; accepted May 17, 2009

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A New OTIS-Arrangment Interconnection Network

Jehad Al-Sadi1 and Ahmad Awwad2
1Faculty of Computer Studies, Arab Open University, Jordan
2Computer Science Department, University of Petra, Jordan
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new interconnection network called Optical Transpose Interconnection Systems (OTIS) Arrangement Network which is constructed from the cross product of the factor Arrangement network. This paper utilizes the features of optical transpose interconnection systems networks which use both of electronic and optical networks. Many recent studies have showed that optical transpose interconnection systems is one of the most promising candidates' networks as future high-speed parallel computers. We also introduce general study on the topological properties for the optical transpose interconnection systems -arrangement by obtaining the main topological properties including size, degree, diameter and number of links and then we propose an efficient routing algorithm. The proposed routing algorithm and the derived properties can be used in general for all optical transpose interconnection systems -network, which will save the researchers effort to work on each on the optical transpose interconnection systems -networks individually. This study provides new means for further testing the possibility of the optical transpose interconnection systems _arrangement as alternative parallel computer network.

Keywords: Parallel and distributed systems, interconnection networks, arrangement network, OTIS-Networks, topological properties, and routing algorithm.

  Received February 28, 2009; accepted November 5, 2009

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Wavelet and Optimal Requantization Methodology for Lossy Fingerprint Compression

Zahraa Muhsen1, Maher Dababneh2, and Ayman AL Nsour1
1Faculty of Science and Information Technology, Isra Private University, Jordan
2University of Surrey London, UK 
Abstract: Re-quantization is a key technology for reducing the bit rate of compressed data. This reduction of the bit rate; and in certain cases may result in signal quality degradation. Therefore the proposed techniques used 9/7 wavelet transform before optimal re-quantization and finally, the output stream of coding symbols is entropy coded by lossless entropy coder; run-length encoding. Simulation results show that a better low Bit Rate has been obtained compared with other different techniques.

Keywords: Software engineering education, reflective learning and teaching, vector quantization, wavelet, 9/7 filter, general VQ, fingerprint, and optimal VQ.

  Received March 26, 2009; accepted November 5, 2009

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Analysis of the Soft Error Susceptibility and Failure Rate in Logic Circuits

Eman AlQuraishi, May Al-Roomi, and Sobeeh Almukhaizim*
Computer Engineering Department, Kuwait University, Kuwait
Abstract: The failure rate of logic circuits due to high-energy particles originating from outer space has been increasing dramatically over the past 10 years. Whereas soft errors have traditionally been of much greater concern in memories, smaller feature sizes, lower voltage levels, higher operating frequencies, and reduced logic depth are projected to cause a dramatic increase in soft error failure rate in core combinational logic in near-future technologies. Traditional fault tolerance strategies may be utilized to protect against these failures; however, the excessive area overhead and stringent power dissipation requirements have made these techniques obsolete, especially in mainstream applications. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity to identify the weak steps during the synthesis of these components that result in the generation of highly-susceptible designs. In this paper, we analyze the susceptibility of logic circuits to transient pulses through an extensive set of logic synthesis experiments while varying the synthesis process. Our aim is to identify the correlation between the key design options and their consequent effect on the susceptibility of the produced implementation. The results in this work reveal that the SER is strongly correlated with logical masking of transient pulses and, thus, fast logic-level soft error failure rate assessment methods can be used in place of computationally-intensive circuit-level assessment techniques. Furthermore, we project that logical masking will become the dominant source for protecting logic circuits from transient pulses, which encourages the development of logic synthesis techniques that maximize the logical masking of potential transient pulses.

Keywords: Single-event transient, soft errors, soft error susceptibility, soft error failure rate, and soft error sensitization probability.

  Received March 30, 2009; accepted December 31, 2009

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Efficient Genetic-Wrapper Algorithm Based Data Mining for Feature Subset Selection in a Power Quality Pattern Recognition Application

Brahmadesam Krishna1 and Baskaran Kaliaperumal2
1Department of CSE, Saranathan College of Engineering, India
2Department of CSE, Government College of Technology, India
Abstract: Power quality monitors handle and store several gigabytes of data within a week and hence automatic detection, recognition and analysis of power disturbances require robust data mining techniques. Literature reveals that much work has been done to evolve several feature extraction and subsequent classification techniques for accurate power disturbance pattern recognition .However the features extracted have been rarely evaluated for their usefulness. The objective of this work is to emphasize that feature selection is an important issue in power quality disturbance classification and that genetic algorithms can select good subsets of features. In this paper, a wrapper based approach that integrates multiobjective genetic algorithms and the target learning algorithm is presented in order to evolve optimal subsets of discriminatory features for robust pattern classification. The wavelet transform and the S-transform are utilized to produce representative feature vectors that can accurately capture the unique and salient characteristics of each disturbance. In the training phase the multiobjective genetic algorithms is used to find a subset of relevant attributes that minimizes both classification error rate and size of the classifier discovered by the classification algorithm, using the Pareto dominance approach. Two different classifiers were compared in this study using genetic feature subset selection: decision tree, a feed forward neural network.  Moreover two different MOGAs namely elitism-based MOGA and Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm have been employed separately in the training phase. Experimental results reveal that both of these proposed variants of MOGA combined with classifiers namely decision trees /FFNN yield improved classification performance and reduced classification time as compared to standard classifiers namely decision trees decision tree or standard feed -forward networks. Moreover NSGA performs better than the elitism based approach in terms of classification time.

Keywords: Data mining, feature selection, genetic algorithm, power quality, and disturbance recognition.

  Received June 2, 2009; accepted August 3, 2009

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On Line Isolated Characters Recognition Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

Redouane Tlemsani1 and Abdelkader Benyettou2
1Departement of Transmission, National Institute of Telecommunications, Algeria
2Departement of Computer Sciences, University of Sciences and Technologies of Oran, Algeria
Abstract: In this paper, our system is a Markovien system which we can see it like a Dynamic Bayesian Networks.  One of the major interests of these systems resides in the complete training of the models (topology and parameters) starting from training data. The representation of knowledge bases on description, by graphs, relations of causality existing between the variables defining the field of study. The theory of Dynamic Bayesian Networks is a generalization of the Bayesians Networks to the dynamic processes. Our objective amounts finding the better structure which represents the relationships (dependencies) between the variables of a dynamic bayesian network. In applications in pattern recognition, one will carry out the fixing of the structure which obliges us to admit some strong assumptions (for example independence between some variables).

Keywords: On line isolated character recognition, pattern recognition, and dynamic bayesian network.

  Received June 12, 2009; accepted November 5, 2009

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Distributed Grid based Robust Clustering Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks

Shahzad Ali and Sajjad A Madani
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan

Abstract: This paper presents a distributed grid based robust clustering protocol for mobile wireless sensor networks. An overwhelming majority of current research on sensor network routing protocols considers static networks only, while we consider mobile environment. grid based robust clustering  is a distributed location based, energy aware clustering protocol designed for mobile sensor networks. grid based robust clustering  utilizes node's location information during cluster head selection and introduces a new parameter called center-ness. It also has a recovery mechanism to decrease packet loss during inter-cluster communication.  Simulation results show that grid based robust clustering  incurs less packet loss, results in high packet delivery ratio, and exhibits robustness against moderate to high mobility of nodes.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, mobility, clustering, routing protocols, and ad hoc networks.

  Received June 16, 2009; accepted November 5, 2009

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Enhanced Junction Selection Mechanism for Routing Protocol in VANETs

Sardar Bilal, Sajjad Madani, and Imran Khan
 Department of Computer Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan

Abstract: Routing in infrastructure less vehicular ad hoc networks is challenging because of the dynamic network, predictable topology, high speed of nodes, and predictable mobility patterns. This paper presents an enhanced routing protocol specifically designed for city environments. It uses vehicular speed and directional density for dynamic junction selection. Simulation results exhibit increased packet delivery ratio while decreased end-to-end delay when compared with state of the art protocols.

Keywords: Greedy forwarding, vehicular ad hoc network, and position based routing.

  Received August 13, 2009; accepted November 5, 2009


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Improved Two-Factor Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol

Shuhua Wu and Yuefei Zhu
 Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, China

Abstract: Quite recently, two smart-card-based passwords authenticated key exchange protocols were proposed by Lee et al. and Hwang et al. respectively. However, neither of them achieves two-factor authentication fully since they would become completely insecure once one factor is broken. To overcome these congenital defects, this study proposes such a secure authenticated key exchange protocol that achieves fully two-factor authentication and provides forward security of session keys. And yet our scheme is simple and reasonably efficient. Furthermore, we can provide the rigorous proof of the security for it.

Keywords: Two-factor, password, smart card, and authenticated key exchange.

  Received December 10, 2009; accepted May 20, 2010

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Design and Implementation of a Fine-grained Resource Usage Model for the Android Platform

Mohammad Nauman1 and Sohail Khan2
1Department of Computer Science, University of Peshawar, Pakistan
2School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, NUST, Pakistan

Abstract: ndroid is among the new breed of smartphone software stacks. It is powerful yet friendly enough to be widely adopted by both the end users and the developer community. This adoption has led to the creation of a large number of third-party applications that run on top of the software stack accessing device resources and data. Users installing third party applications are provided information about which resources an application might use but have no way of restricting access to these resources if they wish to use the application.  All permissions have to be granted or the application fails to install. In this paper, we present a fine-grained usage control model for Android that allows users to specify exactly what resources an application should be allowed access to. These decisions might be based on runtime constraints such as time of day or location of the device or on application attributes such as the number of SMSs already sent by the application. We give details of our implementation and describe an extended installer that provides an easy-to-use interface to the users for setting their policies. Our architecture only requires a minimal change to the existing code base and is thus compatible with the existing security mechanism. As a result, it has a high potential for adoption by the Android community at large.

Keywords: Security, mobile platforms, android, policy framework, and constraints.

  Received February 1, 2010; accepted March 9, 2010

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