May 2012, No. 3
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An Enhanced Distributed Certificate Authority Scheme for Authentication in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Rajaram Ayyasamy1 and Palaniswami Subramani2
1Anna University Coimbatore Coimbatore, India
2Registrar, Anna University Coimbatore Coimbatore, India
Abstract: In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), it is easy to launch wormhole, man-in-the-middle and Denial Of Service (DoS) attacks, or to impersonate another node. Our previous work established a network consisting confidentiality and authentication of packets in both routing and link layers. As an extension to our previous work, in this paper, we propose to develop an enhanced distributed certificate authority scheme to provide data integrity, thus making the network more secure from both inside and outside attacks. The proposed scheme makes use of Shamir’s secret sharing scheme along with a redundancy technique to support certificate renewal and revocation. The malicious nodes are detected by the trusting mechanism by monitoring the behavior hop by hop. By simulation results, we show that the proposed scheme achieves more packet delivery ratio while attaining less delay and overhead, compared with the previous existing scheme.

Keywords: Shamir’s secret sharing, denial of Service (DoS), Routing Cum Forwarding (RCF), certificate revocation, and certification revival.

Received May 3, 2010; accepted August 10, 2010

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A Cross-Layer Based Intrusion Detection Technique for Wireless Networks

Jatinder Singh1, Lakhwinder Kaur2, and Savita Gupta3
1Director, Universal Institute of Engg. and Tech. Lalru, Chandigarh-India
2Reader, UCOE, Punjabi University, Patiala- India
3Prof. ,UIET, Punjab University, Chandigarh-India
Abstract: In this paper, we propose to design a cross-layer based intrusion detection technique for wireless networks. In this technique a combined weight value is computed from the Received signal strength (RSS) and Time taken for RTS-CTS handshake between sender and receiver (TT). Since it is not possible for an attacker to assume the RSS exactly for a sender by a receiver, it is an useful measure for intrusion detection. We propose that we can develop a dynamic profile for the communicating nodes based on their RSS values through monitoring the RSS values periodically for a specific mobile station (MS) or a base station (BS) from a server. Monitoring observed TT values at the server provides a reliable passive detection mechanism for session hijacking attacks since it is an unspoofable parameter related to its measuring entity.  If the weight value is greater than a threshold value, then the corresponding node is considered as an attacker. By suitably adjusting the threshold value and the weight constants, we can reduce the false positive rate, significantly. By simulation results, we show that our proposed technique attains low misdetection ratio and false positive rate while increasing the packet delivery ratio.

Keywords: Intrusion Detection, Wireless Networks, Received Signal Strength (RSS), Cross Layer, RTS-CTS Handshake, and (TT).

Received May 20, 2010; accepted July 4, 2010

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An Effective Data Warehousing System for RFID using Novel Data Cleaning, Data Transformation and Loading Techniques

Barjesh Kochar1 and Rajender Singh Chhillar2
1Department of MCA, GNIM, New Delhi, India
2Professor, Computer Science Department, M.D.University, Rohtak
Abstract: Nowadays, the vital parts of the business programs are the Data warehouses and the Data mining techniques. Especially these are vital in the RFID application which brings a revolution in business programs. Manufacturing, the logistics distribution and various stages of supply chains, retail store and quality management applications are involved in the RFID technology in business. A large volume of temporal and spatial data is generated by the ubiquitous computing and sensor networks of RFID and these are often generated with noises and duplicates. The noises and duplicates in the RFID data declare the need of an effective data warehousing system. The warehousing system has the responsibility to provide proper data cleaning technique to clean the dirty data which occurs in the applications. Also, the cleaned data has to be transformed and to be loaded properly so that they can be stored in the database with minimum space requirements. In this paper, we propose a novel data cleaning, transformation and loading technique which makes the data warehousing system employed for any RFID applications more effective. The chosen RFID application is tracking of goods in warehouses using RFID tags and readers, one of the significant RFID applications. The data cleaning is performed based on the probability of each RFID tag’s response and the window size which is made adaptive. The window size changes on the basis of the occurrence of the dirty data and hence the cleaning is more effective. The purified data is transformed in a special structure in such a way that the ware house can have only the tag IDs which are under transaction and the time of interrogation in the size of bits. The transformed data are loaded into the warehouse using the proposed loading technique in a dedicated tabular format.

Keywords: Data warehousing system, data cleaning, data transformation, data loading, dirty data, radio frequency Identification (RFID), and suspicious tags.

Received September 29, 2009; accepted March 9, 2010

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Neural Disparity Map Estimation from Stereo Image

Nadia Baha and Slimane Larabi
Computer Science Department, University of Science and Technology-Houari Boumediene, Algeria
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new approach of dense disparity map computing based on the neural network from pair of stereo images. Our approach divides the disparity map computing into two main steps. The first one deals with computing the initial disparity map using a neuronal method (BP). The BP network, using differential features as input training data can learn the functional relationship between differential features and the matching degree. Whereas, the second one presents a very simple and fast method to refine the initial disparity map by using image segmentation so an accurate result can be acquired. Experimental results on real data sets were conducted for evaluating the neural model proposed.

Keywords: Neural network, disparity map, segmentation, and uncalibrated cameras.

Received September 29, 2009; accepted August 10, 2010

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A Novel Radon-Wavelet-based Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access Transceiver Design and Simulation under Different Channel Conditions

Abbas Hasan Kattoush
EE Engineering Department, Tafila Technical University, Jordan
Abstract: Wireless digital communication networks are rapidly expanding resulting in a demand for reliable and high spectral efficiency systems. Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) has emerged recently as a promising candidate for the next generation broad-band mobile networks. Also it was found recently that Radon-discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is capable of reducing the inter symbol interference (ISI) and the inter carrier interference (ICI), which are caused by the loss of orthogonality between the carriers. Radon-DWT-OFDM can also support much higher spectrum efficiency than fast Fourier transform-based OFDM (FFT-OFDM). In this paper a novel Radon-DWT-MC-CDMA transceiver design will be presented based on the Radon-DWT-OFDM that is used as a basic building block in the design of MC-CDMA transceiver to increase the orthogonality against the multi-path frequency selective fading channels. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the significant gains in performance and simplicity due to the proposed technique. The bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed Radon-DWT-MC-CDMA scheme was compared with that of FFT based MC-CDMA, Radon based MC-CDMA, and discrete Multiwavelet transform (DMWT) based CDMA and tested in AWGN, Flat fading and Selective fading channels. The simulation results showed that proposed system outperforms the other systems.

Keywords: Finite radon transform, DWT, radon-wavelet based OFDM, multiwavelet based MC-CDMA, radon based MC-CDMA and FFT based MC-CDMA.

Received August 5, 2009; accepted October 10, 2010

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Testing and Evaluation of a Secure Integrity Measurement System (SIMS) for Remote Systems

Shadi Aljawarneh, Abdullah Alhaj
Faculty of Information Technology, Isra University, Jordan
Abstract: We have designed a novel system called a Secure Integrity Measurement System (SIMS) to provide a practical integrity for flexible and traditional remote systems. SIMS is not only targeted for Linux, but it can also be used for different operating systems such as Windows, and UNIX. All and executable content that are loaded onto any operating system is measured before execution. These measurements are protected by a secure Database Management System (DBMS) rather than using Trusted Platform Module (TPM) that is part of the Trusted Computing Group (TCG) standards. The proposed system can measure the executable content from the BIOS and the content that is generated at the application layer. Note our system does not require any special hardware such TCG or a new CPU mode or an operating system. In this paper, a set of experiments are carried out to meet the security and performance objectives. We have shown with the system evaluation that the Secure Integrity Measurement System (SIMS) can provide a tamper detection, and recovery to different kinds of content. The SIMS can efficiently and correctly determine if the executable content has been tampered with.

Keywords: Data integrity, tampering, remote systems, trustworthiness, and survivability.

Received October 12, 2009; accepted March 9, 2010

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Comparison of Genetic Algorithm and Quantum Genetic Algorithm

Zakaria Laboudi and Salim Chikhi
SCAL group, MISC Laboratory, University Mentouri, Constantine, Algeria.

Abstract: Evolving solutions rather than computing them certainly represents a promising programming approach. Evolutionary computation has already been known in computer science since more than 4 decades. More recently, another alternative of evolutionary algorithms was invented: quantum genetic algorithms (QGA). In this paper, we outline the approach of QGA by giving a comparison with conventional genetic algorithm (CGA). Our results have shown that QGA can be a very promising tool for exploring search spaces.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, knapsack problem, quantum genetic algorithm, and quantum computing.

Received October 18, 2009; accepted May 20, 2010

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A Hybrid Approach for Urdu Sentence Boundary Disambiguation

Zobia Rehman, Waqas Anwar
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS Institute of IT, Pakistan

Abstract: Sentence boundary identification is a preliminary step for preparing a text document for Natural Language Processing tasks, e.g., machine translation, POS tagging, text summarization and etc. We present a hybrid approach for Urdu sentence boundary disambiguation comprising of unigram statistical model and rule based algorithm.  After implementing this approach,  we obtained 99.48% precision, 86.35% recall and 92.45% F1-Measure while keeping training and testing data different from each other, and with same training and testing data, we obtained  99.36% precision, 96.45% recall and 97.89% F1-Measure.

Keywords: Sentence boundary disambiguation, and unigram model.

Received October 19, 2009; accepted May 20, 2010

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Facile Programming

Hanan Elazhary
Computers and Systems Department, Electronics Research Institute, Egypt
Abstract: High-level languages and very high-level languages have been developed to simplify programming. But, programming is still hard for many people especially those from disciplines that are not computer-related. Facile programming implies the modification of programming languages to be easily learnt, remembered, and used by programmers from different disciplines. This is achieved by studying and trying to tackle the practical difficulties that face such programmers. The paper addresses the difficulty of learning, remembering, using, and understanding compilation error messages of common English-like programming languages by programmers who are not fluent in English. To tackle this problem, we developed Arabic versions of LISP and SQL in an attempt to figure out whether developing versions, of common programming languages, that are like natural languages of programmers would improve their programming capability. Syntax errors in the Arabic versions can be detected and the corresponding error messages are produced in Arabic. To encourage the use of these Arabic versions, we also developed translators that can translate programs between the corresponding Arabic and English versions of these programming languages for portability. This paper explains the Arabic version of SQL, but reports results from our experience with the Arabic versions of both LISP and SQL. 

Keywords: Programming languages, Arabic programming, SQL, and Arabic SQL.

Received November 22, 2009; accepted March 9, 2010

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A Novel Secure Hash Algorithm for Public Key Digital Signature Schemes

Thulasimani Lakshmanan1, Madheswaran Muthusamy2
1Lecturer, Department of ECE PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore
2Principal Muthayammal Engineering College, Rasipuram
Abstract: Hash functions are the most widespread among all cryptographic primitives, and are currently used in multiple cryptographic schemes and in security protocols. This paper presents a new secure hash algorithm called SHA-192. It uses a famous secure hash algorithm given by the National Institute of standard and technology (NIST).The basic design of SHA-192 is to have the output length of 192.The SHA-192 has been designed to satisfy the different level of enhanced security and to resist the advanced SHA attacks. The security analysis of theSHA-192 is compared to the old one given by NIST and gives more security and excellent results as shown in our discussion. In this paper the digital signature algorithm which is given by NIST has been modified using the proposed algorithms SHA-192. Using proposed SHA-192hash algorithm a new digital signature schemes is also proposed. The SHA-192 can be used in many applications such s public key cryptosystem, digital signcryption, message authentication code, random generator and in security architecture of upcoming wireless devices like Software defined radio etc.

Keywords: Data integrity, hash algorithm, digital signature, pre-image, message digest, and message authentication.

Received September 29, 2009; accepted August 10, 2010

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Representing Access Control Policies in Use Cases

Khaled Alghathbar
College of Computer and Information Sciences, Center of Excellence Information Assurance, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Abstract: Security requirements of a software product need to receive attention throughout its development lifecycle. This paper proposes the required notation and format to represent security requirements, especially access control policies in use case diagram and use case description. Such enhancements offer simple representation for positive and negative authorization; grouping sensitive use cases that form a critical business task; separation of duties – both static and dynamic; least privilege; inheritance of authorizations; and security state or label for data inputted, stored or outputted. Validating information flow requirements at an early stage prevents costly fixes that are mandated during later stages of the development life cycle.

Keywords: Access control policies, security engineering, use cases, misuse.

Received December 14, 2009; accepted May 21, 2010

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A Joint Ownership Protection Scheme for Digital Images Based on Visual Cryptography

Shu-Fen Tu 1 and Ching-Sheng Hsu 2
1 Department of Information Management, Chinese Culture University, Taiwan
2 Department of Information Management, Ming Chuan University, Taiwan (correspondence author)
Abstract: When an image is created by multiple authors, it is reasonable that no single author monopolize the ownership. The ownership should be shared among these authors, and the ownership should be proved by a group of authors. In this paper, we propose a joint ownership protection scheme for co-authored images. Some of the authors or all of the authors can verify ownership. This scheme integrates discrete cosine transforms and visual cryptography to meet robustness and security requirements. The experimental results show this scheme successfully resists some common attacks.

Keywords: joint ownership protection, visual cryptography, discrete cosine transform.

Received January 2, 2010; accepted October 24, 2010

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An Integrated Radix-4 Modular Divider/Multiplier Hardware Architecture for Cryptographic Applications

Lo’ai Tawalbeh1, Yaser Jararweh2, and Abidalrahman Moh’d3
1Computer Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan
2Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, the University of Arizona, USA
3Engineering Mathematics and Internetworking Department, Dalhousie University, Canada
Abstract: The increasing importance of security in computers and communication systems introduces the need for several public-key cryptosystems. The modular division and  multiplication arithmetic operations in GF (p) and GF (2n) are extensively used in many public key cryptosystems, such as  El-Gamal cryptosystem, Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), and the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA). Processing these cryptosystems involves complicated computations, therefore, it is recommended to develop specialized hardware to speed up these computations. In this work, we propose efficient hardware design to compute both operations (division and multiplication) in  the binary extension finite filed (GF (2n).  The common points in both operations are utilized in our design to reduce the design area and delay. making the proposed architecture faster than other previously proposed designs. The FPGA implementation of the proposed design shows better results compared with other designs in this field.

Keywords: Cryptography, number theory, finite field arithmetic, hardware design, and radix-4.

Received January 1, 2010; accepted August 10, 2010

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